Tramadol hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder, odorless, bitter taste, soluble in water and ethanol.
Pharmacological action – analgesic (opioid).
Activates opiate receptors (mu, delta and kappa) on the pre- and postsynaptic membranes of the afferent fibers of the nociceptive system, in the brain and spinal cord, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract; promotes the discovery of potassium and calcium channels, causes hyperpolarization of the membranes and inhibits the conduction of nerve impulses. It slows down the destruction of catecholamines and stabilizes their content in the central nervous system. The analgesic effect is due to a decrease in the activity of nociceptive and an increase in the antinociceptive systems of the body. Inhibits the cerebral cortex, has a sedative effect, inhibits the cough and respiratory centers, stimulates the starting zone of the vomiting center, the nucleus of the oculomotor nerve; causes spasm of sphincter smooth muscles.
After ingestion, it is quickly and completely absorbed (90%), absolute bioavailability – 68%, Tmax – 2 hours. Plasma protein binding – 20%. The volume of distribution depends on the method of administration and is 306 and 203 liters after oral or intravenous administration, respectively. Passes through the BBB and other histohematogenous barriers, including the placental, is secreted into breast milk. Biotransformation is carried out in the liver with the participation of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes, mainly by N- and O-demethylation with subsequent conjugation. Identified 11 metabolites, one of them – mono-O-dezmetiltramadol (M1) – has pharmacological activity. Excreted mainly by the kidneys (90%, of which about 30% – unchanged) and the intestine (about 10%). In violation of the functions of the liver and kidneys (Cl creatinine less than 80 ml / min), elimination slows down.
Pain syndrome of medium and strong intensity (including with malignant neoplasms, injuries, in the postoperative period). Pain relief during painful diagnostic or therapeutic interventions.
Hypersensitivity; conditions accompanied by respiratory depression or marked depression of the central nervous system (alcohol poisoning, sleeping drugs, narcotic analgesics, and other psychoactive drugs); risk of suicide, addiction to substance abuse, simultaneous administration of MAO inhibitors (and a period of 2 weeks after their withdrawal), severe hepatic and / or renal failure, pregnancy (I term), breastfeeding (in the case of long-term use), children up to 1 year (for parenteral administration) and up to 14 years (for oral administration).
Opioid addiction, impaired consciousness of various origins, increased intracranial pressure, TBI, epilepsy, abdominal pain of unknown origin (acute abdomen), impaired renal function and / or liver.
Appointment of tramadol is possible during pregnancy (II and III trimester) only under strict medical supervision, if the benefits to the mother outweigh the risk to the fetus.
From the nervous system and sensory organs: increased sweating, dizziness, headache, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, paradoxical stimulation of the central nervous system (nervousness, agitation, anxiety, tremor, muscle spasm, euphoria, emotional lability, hallucinations), drowsiness, sleep disorders , confusion of consciousness, impaired coordination of movements, instability of gait, convulsions of central genesis (with intravenous administration in high doses or with simultaneous prescription of antipsychotic drugs (neuroleptics), depression, amnesia, cognitive impairment, paresthesia, impaired vision, taste.
On the part of the digestive tract organs: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain, constipation / diarrhea, difficulty in swallowing.
Since the cardiovascular system and blood (blood, hemostasis): tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, syncope, collapse.
Allergic reactions: urticaria, pruritus, rash, bullous rash.
Others: shortness of breath; with prolonged use – drug dependence, with abrupt cancellation – withdrawal syndrome.
Highly effective drug used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. It is also indicated in such diseases as depressive state, asthenic syndrome, chronic cholecystitis and urinary acid diathesis, and vascular dystonia of the hypotonic type.
All preparations of the Soma series have both common properties, which makes them in some cases interchangeable and individual. Below are the general properties of drugs:
Preparations of the Soma series are not an extract from medicinal plants and do not contain preservative substances. Preparations “Soma” – a holistic product of the most complex biological technologies. With such technologies, plant materials are processed by special microorganisms. In this case, the active substances are in an aqueous solution precisely in the form in which they can be completely absorbed by the body. The solution also contains all related substances. In the manufacture of preparations of the Soma series, individual healing components are not extracted. Soma cannot be divided into separate components without losing its healing properties.
All preparations of the Soma series are a liquid product of natural biological synthesis of plant raw materials without taste and smell, containing organ mineral complexes and physiologically active complexing organic substances. Soma contains: nicotinamide, long chain saturated alcohols, condensed cyclic hydrocarbons with unsaturated bonds. Of particular interest is the presence of recently discovered substances in Soma. These are flavonoids – substances that protect cells (prevent inflammation, slow down cell aging, inhibit the development of cancer cells, reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases).
The preparations of the Soma series also contain the richest set of trace elements, which, with daily prophylactic administration, fully compensates for their deficiency in the body.
Preparations of the Soma series, such as Soma, Soma-2, Soma-3, SoMatrix and BaoTan, have both common and individual properties. The drug “Soma” is a base product. Therefore, all other preparations of the Soma series, regardless of the intended purpose, have all the properties characteristic of the Soma base product. Differences of preparations from the base product consist in the fact that certain properties of the base product were strengthened with the aim of purposeful impact on individual organs. In the preparations “Soma-2”, “Soma-3” and “BaoTan” the concentrations of biologically active substances are also increased.
In most cases, “Soma” is taken to restore the homeostasis of the body and as a general tonic. A very powerful positive result is manifested when “Soma” is taken as an additional tool to the main course in the treatment of many diseases, including such as:
Soma is recommended to be taken in conjunction with any drugs, as this increases the effect of the drug itself, and the side effects are reduced. Soma incompatibility with other drugs have not been identified.